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FAME Evidence

Six separate trials have helped to inform the development of the FAME Program. Please refer to the appendix for references. Major findings are documented below.

Categories Improvements
Balance Function 2-5 points increase on the Berg Balance scale
Balance Reflexes 25 ms faster
Falls 1/3 less falls over 12 months
Walking Distance 25% further (6 minute Walk Test)
Balance Confidence Increased 6-10 points (Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale)
Cardiovascular Fitness 10% increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)
Muscle Strength 20-25% stronger
Hip Bone Density Maintenance versus 3% bone loss in controls (DXA); improved bone structure (pQCT)
Memory and Thinking Improvement in aspects of executive functioning including working memory, selective attention, and attentional conflict

* number references go here (?), to use with superscripts (or in-text citations i.e. author/year?) in the table *

  1. Andersson, A., Kamwendo, K., Seiger, A., & Appelros, P. (2006). Journal of rehabilitation medicine: How to identify potential fallers in a stroke unit: Validity indexes of four test methods Taylor & Francis. doi:10.1080/16501970500478023
  2. Aufdemkampe, G., Angevaren, M., Vanhees, L., Verhaar, H. J. J., & Aleman, A. (2008). Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (3), CD005381.
  3. Barker, M. & Tang, Ada. Aerobic Exercise After Stroke. (2013). Retrieved from
  4. Batchelor, F., Hill, K., Mackintosh, S., & Said, C. (2010). What works in falls prevention after stroke? Stroke, 41(8), 1715-1722.
  5. Beavan, J. (2015). Update on management options for dysphagia after acute stroke. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 11(Sup2), 10-19. doi:10.12968/bjnn.2015.11.Sup2.10
  6. Beghi, E., D’Alessandro, R., Beretta, S., Consoli, D., Crespi, V., Delaj, L.. . Epistroke Group. (2011). Incidence and predictors of acute symptomatic seizures after stroke. Neurology, 77(20), 1785.
  7. Dal Bello-Haas, V., Klassen, L., et al. (2011). Psychometric Properties of Activity, Self-Efficacy, and Quality-of-Life Measures in Individuals with Parkinson Disease. Physiotherapy Canada 63(1): 47-57.
  8. Flansbjer, U. B., Holmback, A. M., et al. (2005). Reliability of gait performance tests in men and women with hemiparesis after stroke. J Rehabil Med 37(2): 75-82.
  9. Kennedy, D. M., Stratford, P. W., et al. (2005). Assessing stability and change of four performance measures: a longitudinal study evaluating outcome following total hip and knee arthroplasty.” BMC Musculoskelet Disord 6: 3.
  10. Nys, G. M. S., van Zandvoort, M. J. E., de Kort, P. L. M., Jansen, B. P. W., de Haan, E. H. F., & Kappelle, L. J. (2007). Cognitive disorders in acute stroke: Prevalence and clinical determinants. Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23(5-6), 408-416. doi:10.1159/000101464
  11. Outermans, J. C., van Peppen, R. P., et al. (2010). “Effects of a high-intensity task-oriented training on gait performance early after stroke: a pilot study.” Clin Rehabil 24(11): 979-987
  12. Pendlebury, S. (2009). Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with pre-stroke and poststroke dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol, 8(11), 1006-1018. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70236-4
  13. Perera, S., Mody, S., et al. (2006). “Meaningful change and responsiveness in common physical performance measures in older adults.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 54(5): 743-749.
  14. Pescatello, L. S., & American College of Sports Medicine [ACSM]. (2014). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  15. Schenkman, M., Cutson, T. M., et al. (1997). Reliability of impairment and physical performance measures for persons with Parkinson’s disease. Phys Ther 77(1): 19-27
  16. Tang, A., Eng, J., & Rand, D. (2012). Relationship between perceived and measured changes in walking after stroke. Journal of neurologic physical therapy: JNPT, 36(3), 115.
  17. Tilson, J. K., Sullivan, K. J., et al. (2010). Meaningful gait speed improvement during the first 60 days poststroke: minimal clinically important difference. Phys Ther 90(2): 196-208.
  18. Woodward, S. (2014). Managing urinary incontinence after stroke. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 10(Sup2), 25-31. doi:10.12968/bjnn.2014.10.Sup2.25